BT

Facilitating the spread of knowledge and innovation in professional software development

Contribute

Topics

Choose your language

InfoQ Homepage Articles Implementing Pipeline Microservicilities with Tekton

Implementing Pipeline Microservicilities with Tekton

Bookmarks

Key Takeaways

  • Some new challenges need to be addressed when developing microservices architecture, such as scalability, security, and observability.
  • Microservicilities provides a list of cross-cutting concerns to implement microservices correctly.
  • Kubernetes is an excellent start to implement these microservicilities, but there are some gaps.
  • Each service must be deployable independently without requiring a chain of deployment of other services.
  • Dockerless tools let you create Linux containers without requiring Docker.

In a microservices architecture, an application is formed by several interconnected services where all of them work together to produce the required business functionality. So a typical enterprise microservices architecture looks like this:

In the beginning, it might seem easy to implement an application using a microservices architecture.

But doing it properly is not an easy journey as there are some challenges to address that weren't present with a monolith architecture.

Some of these are fault tolerance, service discovery, scaling, logging, or tracing, just to mention a few.

To solve these challenges, every microservice should implement what we at Red Hat named Microservicilities.

The term refers to a list of cross-cutting concerns that a service must implement apart from the business logic to resolve these challenges.

These concerns are summarized in the following diagram:

In part one and part two of this series, we covered how to implement all these microservicilities using either Quarkus and Istio, respectively. But there was one remaining "microservicility" not covered in any of the articles, Pipeline.

In a microservice architecture, we should deploy services independently without any kind of deployment orchestration. Having no orchestration among services means that it’s unnecessary to deploy and release the whole application every time, but just a tiny part of it.

Releasing small portions of the application has some advantages:

  • Decreases the chance of introducing a break in the application.
  • It is easier to deploy and rollback in case of an error.
  • You can increase the frequency of deployments to production.

For this reason, each service should have its deployment pipeline so that we may deploy it at any time following its own rules or flow.

Having one deployment pipeline for each service opens some challenges that we need to address:

  • How to implement and manage several pipelines.
  • How to automate the deployments for all services.
  • How to reuse parts of the pipelines across the services yet maintain their independence.
  • How to execute them in a cloud environment.

The answer to most of these questions is pipeline-as-code. This technique allows you to create the continuous delivery pipelines as code/file (YAML) to be treated as code.

Since pipelines are defined as code, they should be placed under source control, meaning they may be reusable, branchable, or taggable. And what’s even more important is adding the service code and the delivery pipeline together in the same repository.

Kubernetes is becoming the de-facto tool for deploying microservices. It’s an open-source system for automating, orchestrating, scaling, and managing containers.

As we’ve seen in the two previous articles, three of the ten microservicilities are covered using Kubernetes.

If we use Istio, the other five microservicilities are implemented: discovery, resiliency, authentication, monitoring, and tracing.

Using Kubernetes and Istio is a good idea, but what about Pipeline? How could we implement a Kubernetes-native continuous delivery pipeline? Introducing Tekton as the solution.

Tekton

Tekton is a Kubernetes-native solution for building CI/CD pipelines installed and run as a Kubernetes extension. It offers a set of Kubernetes custom resources to define blocks we can create and reuse for our pipelines.

Entities

Tekton defines the following basic Kubernetes Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs) to build a pipeline:

A PipelineResource defines referable resources such as source code repositories or container images.

A Task defines a list of steps executed in sequential order. A step executes commands within a container. A task is a Kubernetes Pod containing as many containers as steps.

A TaskRun instantiates a Task for execution with concrete inputs, outputs, and parameters.

A Pipeline defines a list of tasks to execute in a particular order.

A PipelineRun instantiates a Pipeline for execution with concrete inputs, outputs, and parameters. It automatically creates TaskRun instances for each Task.

A Task may be run individually by creating a TaskRun object or as a part of a Pipeline.

Installation

Execute the following command to start the cluster:

minikube start -p tekton --kubernetes-version='v1.19.0' --vm-driver='virtualbox' --memory=4096

  [istio] minikube v1.17.1 on Darwin 11.3
  Kubernetes 1.20.2 is now available. If you would like to upgrade, specify: --kubernetes-version=v1.20.2
  minikube 1.19.0 is available! Download it: https://github.com/kubernetes/minikube/releases/tag/v1.19.0
  To disable this notice, run: 'minikube config set WantUpdateNotification false'

  Using the virtualbox driver based on existing profile
  You cannot change the memory size for an exiting minikube cluster. Please first delete the cluster.
  Starting control plane node istio in cluster istio
  Restarting existing virtualbox VM for "istio" ...
  Preparing Kubernetes v1.19.0 on Docker 19.03.12 ...
  Verifying Kubernetes components...
  Enabled addons: storage-provisioner, default-storageclass
  Done! kubectl is now configured to use "tekton" cluster and "" namespace by default
 

With the Kubernetes cluster up and running, download the tkn CLI tool to interact with Tekton Pipelines. In this case, we download the tkn 0.18.0 from the release page.

Now let’s install the Tekton controller executing the following command:

kubectl apply -f 
https://storage.googleapis.com/tekton-releases/pipeline/previous/v0.24.0/release.yaml
namespace/tekton-pipelines created
podsecuritypolicy.policy/tekton-pipelines created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tekton-pipelines-controller-cluster-access created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tekton-pipelines-controller-tenant-access created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tekton-pipelines-webhook-cluster-access created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tekton-pipelines-controller created
…
deployment.apps/tekton-pipelines-controller created
service/tekton-pipelines-controller created
horizontalpodautoscaler.autoscaling/tekton-pipelines-webhook created
deployment.apps/tekton-pipelines-webhook created
service/tekton-pipelines-webhook created

Defining a Pipeline

Let’s see how to define a Continuous Delivery Pipeline in Tekton. This pipeline is composed of two tasks. The first task clones the project from GitHub, builds a Java project using Maven (it could be any other build tool or even a different language), creates a container image, and pushes it to a container registry. And a second task deploys the services to a Kubernetes cluster.

But before we start developing the pipeline, let’s begin with a simple "Hello World" task to understand the Tekton concepts.

First Task

Create a task with one step that starts a busybox container and executes an echo command within it. Name the file hello-world-task.yml:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: Task
metadata:
 name: helloworld
spec:
 steps:
   - name: sayhello
     image: busybox
     command:
       - echo
     args: ['Hello World']

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/hello-world-task.yml -n default
task.tekton.dev/helloworld created

Use tkn to list the currently registered tasks:

tkn task list
NAME         DESCRIPTION   AGE
helloworld                 1 minute ago

We only registered the task at this point. Now we need to instantiate a task to execute it. We may accomplish this by using tkn CLI or applying a TaskRun. Create a TaskRun file with the name hello-world-taskrun.yml registering the previous task in the name field.

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: TaskRun
metadata:
 name: helloworld-run
spec:
 taskRef:
   name: helloworld

After we apply this file, the task is triggered.

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/hello-world-taskrun.yml
taskrun.tekton.dev/helloworld-run created

Use tkn to list the current task:

tkn tr list
NAME             STARTED         DURATION   STATUS
helloworld-run   8 seconds ago   ---        Running(Pending)

A Task is just a Kubernetes Pod running in our Kubernetes cluster, and each of the steps is a container within the Pod. Execute the following command to get current Pods:

kubectl get pods
NAME                       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
helloworld-run-pod-75dwt   0/1     Completed   0          45s

The status of the Pod is completed as the task has finished. It runs one container and the name follows the terminology defined in the name field in the metadata section of TaskRun.

Describe the Pod, and focus on the containers section to get an overview of the containers started by the task:

kubectl describe pod helloworld-run-pod-75dwt

…
Containers:
  step-sayhello:
    Container ID:  docker://e3bb6b747e6cbb76829e7658b7bf2976f3f09861775a4584eccfba0c143996a6
    Image:         busybox

...

Finally, we can see the logs of the TaskRun using the tkn logs command:

tkn tr logs helloworld-run
[sayhello] Hello World

We now have a basic knowledge of Tekton Tasks. Let’s move forward and implement a real pipeline with all required steps.

Pipeline Resource

A PipelineResource defines locations for input/output resources used by the steps in Tasks. These parameters are usually in the form of a Git URL or Container image qualified name.

Create a new PipelineResource file configuring the project repository:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1alpha1
kind: PipelineResource
metadata:
 name: git-source
spec:
 type: git
 params:
   - name: url
     value: https://github.com/lordofthejars/hello-world-tekton.git


kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/git-pipeline-resource.yml -n default
pipelineresource.tekton.dev/git-source created

And create another PipelineResource to set the container image:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1alpha1
kind: PipelineResource
metadata:
 name: hello-world-image
spec:
 type: image
 params:
   - name: url
     value: quay.io/lordofthejars/hello-world-quarkus-tekton:1.0.0
 
kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/container-image-resource.yml
pipelineresource.tekton.dev/hello-world-image created

tkn resource list
NAME                TYPE    DETAILS
git-source          git     url: https://github.com/lordofthejars/hello-world-tekton.git
hello-world-image   image   url: quay.io/lordofthejars/hello-world-quarkus-tekton:1.0.0

Task

Before creating the task, we create a Kubernetes Secret containing two key/values for Quay credentials: Quay username and Quay password. Replace the username and password values for the correct ones.

kubectl create secret generic quay-credentials --from-literal=quay-username='yyy' --from-literal=quay-password='xxx'
secret/quay-credentials created

Then we create a Task that builds the project, creates a Linux container image, and pushes it to the container registry (for this example, Quay, but it could be any other).

Since this is a Java project implemented in Quarkus, we take advantage of its integration with Jib to create container images in a Dockerless way. When building container images within a running container (as this is the case of Tekton), we might experience some problems with running a task container within a container (build a new container). This is the reason why it’s important to use Dockerless technology to create a container. Jib is an option for Java projects, but other generic, not language-specific options are available, such as Buildah or Kaniko.

Let’s create a task that executes the Maven package goal, setting the Quarkus option to build, and push the container image to Quay. Of course, we set the Git repository and container image name as inputs and outputs (PipelineResource) and Quay username/password as parameters (Kubernetes Secrets).

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: Task
metadata:
 name: build-app
spec:
 params:
 - name: quay-credentials-secret
   type: string
   description: name of the secret holding the quay credentials
   default: quay-credentials
 resources:
   inputs:
     - name: source
       type: git
   outputs:
     - name: builtImage
       type: image
 steps:
   - name: maven-build
     image: docker.io/maven:3.6-jdk-11-slim
     command:
       - mvn
     args:
       - clean
       - package
       - -Dquarkus.container-image.push=true
     env:
     - name: QUARKUS_CONTAINER_IMAGE_IMAGE
       value: $(outputs.resources.builtImage.url)
     - name: QUARKUS_CONTAINER_IMAGE_USERNAME
       valueFrom:
         secretKeyRef:
           name: $(params.quay-credentials-secret)
           key: quay-username
     - name: QUARKUS_CONTAINER_IMAGE_PASSWORD
       valueFrom:
         secretKeyRef:
           name: $(params.quay-credentials-secret)
           key: quay-password
     workingDir: "/workspace/source/"

We see that the Quay credentials’ secret name is set as a parameter in the previous file. Parameter quay-credentials has a default value with the same value as used in the kubectl creates secret command.

The input parameter is named source of type git.

The output parameter is the name of the container image.

In the env section, we define some environment variables to configure the Quarkus container image extension to build and push the container image:

  • The container image name is defined from an output resource.
  • Quay credentials are injected from a Kubernetes Secret.  

Register the task in the Kubernetes cluster:

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/build-push-task.yml

tkn task list
NAME         DESCRIPTION   AGE
build-app                  3 hours ago

Finally, we instantiate this task by creating a TaskRun linking the input/output resources with the PipelineResource previously created and setting the secret name as a parameter.

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: TaskRun
metadata:
 name: build-app-run
spec:
 params:
   - name: quay-credentials-secret
     value: quay-credentials
 resources:
   inputs:
     - name: source
       resourceRef:
         name: git-source
   outputs:
     - name: builtImage
       resourceRef:
         name: hello-world-image
 taskRef:
   name: build-app

Notice that the resourceRef field points to the PipelineResource name defined in the previous section.

When the TaskRun is applied, the build process starts its execution, cloning the project, building it using Maven, creating and pushing the container image. We may see logs of the current task in real-time by streaming them using tkn CLI:

tkn tr logs -f

? Select taskrun:  [Use arrows to move, type to filter]
> build-app-run started 38 minutes ago
  helloworld-run started 1 day ago

[git-source-source-w2ck5] {"level":"info","ts":1620922474.2565205,"caller":"git/git.go:169","msg":"Successfully cloned https://github.com/lordofthejars/hello-world-tekton.git @ ee3edc414c47f2bdeda9cc7c47ac54427d35a9dc (grafted, HEAD) in path /workspace/source"}
[git-source-source-w2ck5] {"level":"info","ts":1620922474.276228,"caller":"git/git.go:207","msg":"Successfully initialized and updated submodules in path /workspace/source"}

...

[maven-build] Downloading from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/maven-plugin-parameter-documenter/2.0.6/maven-plugin-parameter-documenter-2.0.6.pom
Downloaded from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/maven-plugin-parameter-documenter/2.0.6/maven-plugin-parameter-documenter-2.0.6.pom (1.9 kB at 58 kB/s)
[maven-build] Downloading from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/reporting/maven-reporting-api/2.0.6/maven-reporting-api-2.0.6.pom

…

[maven-build] [INFO] [io.quarkus.container.image.jib.deployment.JibProcessor] Pushed container image quay.io/lordofthejars/hello-world-quarkus-tekton:1.0.0 (sha256:e71b0808af36ce3b9b980b2fb83886be2e06439ee454813052a115829e1e727c)
[maven-build] [INFO] [io.quarkus.deployment.QuarkusAugmentor] Quarkus augmentation completed in 24202ms
[maven-build] [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[maven-build] [INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[maven-build] [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[maven-build] [INFO] Total time:  01:16 min
[maven-build] [INFO] Finished at: 2021-05-13T16:15:52Z
[maven-build] [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

[image-digest-exporter-88mpr] {"severity":"INFO","timestamp":"2021-05-13T16:15:53.025263494Z","caller":"logging/config.go:116","message":"Successfully created the logger."}
[image-digest-exporter-88mpr] {"severity":"INFO","timestamp":"2021-05-13T16:15:53.025374882Z","caller":"logging/config.go:117","message":"Logging level set to: info"}
[image-digest-exporter-88mpr] {"severity":"INFO","timestamp":"2021-05-13T16:15:53.025508459Z","caller":"imagedigestexporter/main.go:59","message":"No index.json found for: builtImage","commit":"b86a9a2"}

Pipeline

So far, we’ve created a simple task. Still, an actual continuous delivery/deployment pipeline should be composed of several tasks: building and publishing a container image and deploying it to a Kubernetes cluster.

Let’s create a task with two steps:

  • The first step updates the Kubernetes Deployment file with the container image set in the PipelineResource. For editing the deployment YAML file, we use the yq tool. Also, we use the script section instead of command to show another way of running commands within a container.
  • The second step executes the kubectl command to deploy the service.
  • For this task, we require three parameters: the deployment file, the Git repository where the deployment file is stored, and the container image name built in the previous task.

Create a deploy-task.yml file with the following content:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: Task
metadata:
 name: kubectl-deploy
spec:
 params:
 - name: deploymentFile
   type: string
   description: deployment file location
 resources:
   inputs:
     - name: source
       type: git
     - name: builtImage
       type: image
 steps:
 - name: update-deployment-file
   image: quay.io/lordofthejars/image-updater:1.0.0
   script: |
     #!/usr/bin/env ash
     yq eval -i '.spec.template.spec.containers[0].image = env(DESTINATION_IMAGE)' $DEPLOYMENT_FILE
   env:
     - name: DESTINATION_IMAGE
       value: "$(inputs.resources.builtImage.url)"
     - name: DEPLOYMENT_FILE
       value: "/workspace/source/$(inputs.params.deploymentFile)"
    
 - name: kubeconfig
   image: quay.io/rhdevelopers/tutorial-tools:0.0.3
   command: ["kubectl"]
   args:
     - apply
     - -f
     - /workspace/source/$(inputs.params.deploymentFile)

Notice that script content is placed instead of command in the first step. To pass the Tekton parameters to the script section, we need to accomplish this through environment variables.

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/deploy-task.yml
task.tekton.dev/kubectl-deploy created

tkn task ls
NAME             DESCRIPTION   AGE
build-app                      18 hours ago
helloworld                     1 day ago
kubectl-deploy                 11 minutes ago

To deploy the service, we need to execute the kubectl command within a Kubernetes cluster. To make it work, we need to set a Kubernetes Role to allow the default service account because this is the service account running the Tekton Pipelines in our example. This role must permit a running container to apply Kubernetes resources.

Create a pipeline-sa-role.yml file with the following content:

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: Role
metadata:
 name: pipeline-extra-role
rules:
 - apiGroups:
     - ""
   resources:
     - pods
     - services
     - endpoints
     - configmaps
     - secrets
   verbs:
     - "*"
 - apiGroups:
     - apps
   resources:
     - deployments
     - daemonsets
     - replicasets
     - statefulsets
   verbs:
     - "*"
 - apiGroups:
     - ""
   resources:
     - pods
   verbs:
     - get
 - apiGroups:
     - apps
   resources:
     - replicasets
   verbs:
     - get
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
 name: pipeline-exta-role-binding
roleRef:
 kind: Role
 name: pipeline-extra-role
 apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
subjects:
 - kind: ServiceAccount
   name: default

Register the role:

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/pipeline-sa-role.yml
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/pipeline-extra-role created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/pipeline-exta-role-binding created

We are now ready to create a Tekton Pipeline to combine both tasks. It’s essential to define the pipeline parameters as they’re set when Tekton Tasks are referenced in the pipeline definition. We define the params value (quay-credentials-secret and deploymentFile) and reference pipelineresource as inputs/outputs in both tasks.

Create a pipeline.yml file:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: Pipeline
metadata:
 name: hello-world-pipeline
spec:
 resources:
   - name: appSource
     type: git
   - name: containerImage
     type: image
 tasks:
   - name: build-app
     taskRef:
       name: build-app
     params:
       - name: quay-credentials-secret
         value: quay-credentials
     resources:
       inputs:
         - name: source
           resource: appSource
       outputs:
         - name: builtImage
           resource: containerImage
   - name: kube-deploy
     taskRef:
       name: kubectl-deploy
     params:
       - name: deploymentFile
         value: src/main/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml
     runAfter:
       - build-app
     resources:
       inputs:
         - name: source
           resource: appSource
         - name: builtImage
           resource: containerImage

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/pipeline.yml
pipeline.tekton.dev/hello-world-pipeline created

We can list pipelines using tkn CLI:

tkn pipeline list
NAME                   AGE             LAST RUN   STARTED   DURATION   STATUS
hello-world-pipeline   5 seconds ago   ---        ---       ---        ---

Describing the pipeline gives us an overview of the pipeline and what must be defined  when running it.

tkn pipeline describe hello-world-pipeline
Name:        hello-world-pipeline
Namespace:   default

 Resources

 NAME               TYPE
 ∙ appSource        git
 ∙ containerImage   image

 Params

 No params

 Results

 No results

 Workspaces

 No workspaces

  Tasks

 NAME            TASKREF          RUNAFTER    TIMEOUT   CONDITIONS   PARAMS
 ∙ build-app     build-app                    ---       ---          quay-credentials-secret: quay-credentials
 ∙ kube-deploy   kubectl-deploy   build-app   ---       ---          deploymentFile: src/main/kubernetes/deployment.yml

 PipelineRuns

 No pipelineruns

We now don’t need any TaskRuns as they are automatically created when a PipelineRun is applied:

apiVersion: tekton.dev/v1beta1
kind: PipelineRun
metadata:
 name: hello-world-pipeline-run
spec:
 resources:
   - name: appSource
     resourceRef:
       name: git-source
   - name: containerImage
     resourceRef:
       name: hello-world-image
 pipelineRef:
   name: hello-world-pipeline

In a PipelineRun, we set the link between a PipelineResources and Pipeline, as it was executing with a TaskRun.

kubectl apply -f src/main/tekton/pipeline-run.yml
pipelinerun.tekton.dev/hello-world-pipeline-run created

Similar to TaskRun, we may stream the logs of a pipeline by executing the following command:

tkn pipeline logs -f

…

[kube-deploy : git-source-source-sdgld] {"level":"info","ts":1620978300.0659564,"caller":"git/git.go:169","msg":"Successfully cloned https://github.com/lordofthejars/hello-world-tekton.git @ b954dbc68e0aa7e4cfb6defeff00b1e4ded2889c (grafted, HEAD) in path /workspace/source"}
[kube-deploy : git-source-source-sdgld] {"level":"info","ts":1620978300.0972755,"caller":"git/git.go:207","msg":"Successfully initialized and updated submodules in path /workspace/source"}


[kube-deploy : kubeconfig] deployment.apps/hello-world created

If the build succeeded, the service would be deployed on the current Kubernetes cluster. Get all the Pods to see what happened on the cluster:

kubectl get pods
NAME                                                   READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
hello-world-59d47597c-qm9nr                            1/1     Running     0          36m
hello-world-pipeline-run-build-app-xmvg2-pod-v4vps     0/4     Completed   0          37m
hello-world-pipeline-run-kube-deploy-bfqhd-pod-x68xh   0/3     Completed   0          36m

We see two Pods have completed. The hello-world-pipeline-run-build-app Pod is the build-app task that clones, builds, tests the service, and finally creates and pushes the container image. The hello-world-pipeline-run-kube-deploy Pod is the kube-deploy task deploying the application.

Apart from the tasks, there is also a running Pod. This is the application Pod deployed during the pipeline execution.

Conclusions

Developing and implementing a microservices architecture is a bit more challenging than developing a monolith application. We believe that microservicilities can drive you to create services correctly in terms of the application infrastructure.

In part one and part two of this series, we saw how to implement microservicilities using Quarkus or Istio, respectively, but we didn’t cover the Pipeline microservicility. This article demonstrated how to implement a basic continuous delivery pipeline using Tekton, a Kubernetes-native solution for building CI/CD pipelines.

One of the significant advantages of Tekton is the ability to create container images in the same cluster where they are deployed. This reduces the friction we might find when containers are built in some machines and deployed in others. Another advantage is how a pipeline is defined using YAML files. In this way, pipelines are stored alongside source code, making them branchable, taggable, or versioning.

Sometimes, it isn’t necessary to define tasks from scratch because, in the Tekton Catalog, we may find tasks ready to be used. Moreover, if you need to develop custom tasks, design them as open as possible using parameters and input/output resources. In this way, tasks may be reused within your organization to solve similar problems.

This article is just an introduction to Tekton. We’ve seen a pipeline is run when a PipelineRun object is created in the cluster, but a trigger/event may also instantiate a Pipeline. An event can be, for example, a push to a particular branch in a GitHub repository. Triggers are an advanced topic, and you can learn more here.

Source code demonstrated in this article may be found on this GitHub repository. Source code for part one and part two of this series may be found here and here, respectively.

About the Author

Alex Soto is a Director of Developer Experience at Red Hat. He is passionate about the Java world, software automation, and he believes in the open-source software model. Soto is the co-author of Manning | Testing Java Microservices and O’Reilly | Quarkus Cookbook and contributor to several open-source projects. A Java Champion since 2017, he is also an international speaker and teacher at Salle URL University. You can follow him on Twitter (Alex Soto ⚛️) to stay tuned to what’s going on in Kubernetes and Java world. 

Rate this Article

Adoption
Style

Hello stranger!

You need to Register an InfoQ account or or login to post comments. But there's so much more behind being registered.

Get the most out of the InfoQ experience.

Allowed html: a,b,br,blockquote,i,li,pre,u,ul,p

Community comments

Allowed html: a,b,br,blockquote,i,li,pre,u,ul,p

Allowed html: a,b,br,blockquote,i,li,pre,u,ul,p

BT

Is your profile up-to-date? Please take a moment to review and update.

Note: If updating/changing your email, a validation request will be sent

Company name:
Company role:
Company size:
Country/Zone:
State/Province/Region:
You will be sent an email to validate the new email address. This pop-up will close itself in a few moments.