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Versioning of Events in Event Sourced Systems

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A challenge with event sourced systems is that events put in the event store years ago must be readable today, even though the software has gone through numerous changes, Greg Young stated in his presentation at this year’s DDD eXchange conference. There are downstream consumers like projections and other systems that must be able to handle old as well as new versions of events.

If a system can be taken down, updated and brought back up, versioning of events is relatively simple. For Young, an authority on CQRS and event sourcing, and lead architect behind Event Store, the real challenge comes when a system can’t be taken down and you have two versions of the software running at the same time.

A general rule when versioning events is that adding things does not cause a versioning conflict. Adding a new version of an event is therefore not a problem, as long as we don’t break the definition of a new version event; it must be convertible from an old version of the same event. If this is not possible, then it’s a new event. Following these rules, when old versions are read from the store, they can first be converted, or upcasted, to the latest version before handled. This means that an event handler only needs to know how to deal with the latest version, an important benefit if many new versions have been created. To be able to convert an old version of an event when a property has been added to the new version, we use the same principle as when we add a new not nullable column to a database; we use a default value.

With events based on a type system, we are using a strong schema. With that we will not get any support from the serializer; it can only read events that exactly match the type or schema. Young notes that this approach only works if you can take the system down and upgrade it, otherwise consumers may read new versions of events that they don’t know about and are unable to deserialize them. He therefore generally recommends against this approach.

Using JSON or XML as a format for describing an event we have a weak schema, and instead of deserializing we map from JSON data to an event object. If a property has the same name in the two we copy the value into the event. If something in the JSON data is missing in the event we just leave the corresponding value. If a property in the event is not found in the JSON data, it will get a default value. For this to work we have to add two rules; we are not allowed to rename anything, and we may not change the semantic meaning of a property. One advantage of this technique is that we don’t need to create new versions of events; we only need the latest versions. For Young this technique is much preferable since now an old version of the software is able to read a new event.

Another option, related to a weak schema, is a hybrid schema where things an event needs to make sense, like the identity of the order for an event related to that order, are required and the rest are optional.

Other more complex kinds of problems include events that shouldn’t have been published and situations when you find out that the aggregate boundaries are wrong. Updating an existing event can cause large problems and Young strongly argues against this. Instead, he prefers using streams for manipulation, one example being transform streams. During the release process, you can make any transformation that is needed by reading from one stream, make a transformation and write to a new stream. The old stream can afterwards be deleted. Other examples include joining and splitting streams.

For more details about event versioning, Young is currently in the progress of writing a book about handling versioning over long periods of time.

Next year’s DDD eXchange Conference in London is scheduled for April 26-27, 2018.

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