In his keynote at JVM Languages Summit 2009, Rich Hickey advocated for the reexamination of basic principles like state, identity, value, time, types, genericity, complexity, as they are used by OOP today, to be able to create the new constructs and languages to deal with the massive parallelism and concurrency of the future.
Ulf Wiger shows typical Erlang programs, patterns that scale well on multicore and patterns that don't, profiling and debugging parallel applications and ensuring correct behaviour with QuickCheck.
Multiprocessor systems have gone from being rare and expensive to being ubiquitous. As the hardware reality changes, so do the programs we want to write and so must the platform and libraries we rely on. In Java SE 7, the java.util.concurent package will grow to address the need to exploit finer-grained concurrency, in the form of the fork-join framework.
In this presentation recorded during QCon London 2008, Simon Peyton-Jones advertises the need for programming purity achieved especially through use of functional languages and the increased attention given to functional programming.