Scala: combining the best of Ruby and Java?
Scala was designed to be both object-oriented and functional. It is a pure object-oriented language in the sense that every value is an object. Objects are defined by classes, which can be composed using mixin composition. Scala is also a functional language in the sense that every function is a value. Functions can be nested, and they can operate on data using pattern matching.Earlier this year, Ted Neward also picked up on the "Ruby-esque" features of Scala and made three detailed blog entries introducing Scala, demonstrating it's brevity, and explaining it's object oriented design.
Key features, from the Scala homepage:
According to Martin, Scala has a small but growing community. "We currently see about 1000 downloads per month of the Scala distribution on our website." Scala 2.1.2 was released this past April.
- Scala is object-oriented. Scala is a pure object-oriented language in the sense that every value is an object. Types and behavior of objects are described by classes and traits. Class abstractions are extended by subclassing and a flexible mixin-based composition mechanism as a clean replacement for multiple inheritance.
- Scala is functional. Scala is also a functional language in the sense that every function is a value. Scala provides a lightweight syntax for defining anonymous functions, it supports higher-order functions, it allows functions to be nested, and supports currying. Scala's case classes and its built-in support for pattern matching model algebraic types used in many functional programming languages. Furthermore, Scala's notion of pattern matching naturally extends to the processing of XML data with the help of right-ignoring sequence patterns. In this context, sequence comprehensions are useful for formulating queries. These features make Scala ideal for developing applications like web services (external link).
- Scala is statically typed. Scala is equipped with an expressive type system that enforces statically that abstractions are used in a safe and coherent manner. In particular, the type system supports, generic classes, variance annotations, upper and lower type bounds, inner classes and abstract types as object members, compound types, explicitly typed self references, views, and polymorphic methods. A local type inference mechanism takes care that the user is not required to annotate the program with redundant type information. In combination, these features provide a powerful basis for the safe reuse of programming abstractions and for the type-safe extension of software.
- Scala is extensible. The design of Scala acknowledges the fact that in practice, the development of domain-specific applications often requires domain-specific language extensions. Scala provides a unique combination of language mechanisms that make it easy to smoothly add new language constructs in form of libraries: any method may be used as an infix or postfix operator, and closures are constructed automatically depending on the expected type (target typing). A joint use of both features facilitates the definition of new statements without extending the syntax and without using macro-like meta-programming facilities.
Scala is cool
The functional stuff is definitely nice as it allows for some very concise code to do powerful things. I'm still finding it a bit tough to read compared to Java, though. Partly it's because I'm so used to Java, but partly it's because Scala is just more powerful and somewhat more complex.
Hmm without all the "end"s it looks like Python to me
Re: [OT] Haskell -
Re: [OT] Haskell -> JVM bytecodes
And so on.....
Re: And so on.....